Washington imposed the ban Monday in a case involving exports of telecoms equipment to Iran and North Korea. US companies are barred from selling technology to state-owned ZTE for seven years.
That could handicap ZTE's smartphone business, which uses Android, and crimp a multibillion-dollar revenue flow to companies such as Qualcomm that supply chips, software and other technology.
ZTE pleaded guilty in March 2017 and agreed to pay a $1.19 billion (roughly Rs. 7,800 crores) penalty for shipping equipment to Iran and North Korea in violation of US regulations. The company promised to discipline employees involved in the scheme, but the US Commerce Department said this week they were paid bonuses instead.
A ZTE statement complained US authorities imposed "the most severe action" without waiting for an investigation and corrective measures to be completed.
The penalty "not only threatens ZTE's existence but also harms the interests of ZTE's business partners, including a large number of US companies," said the statement.
"ZTE will not give up its efforts to solve problems through communication and dialogue. It is determined to safeguard its legitimate rights and interests through all legally permitted means," the company said.
The statement gave no indication what legal steps ZTE might take.
The company, headquartered in the southern city of Shenzhen, operates in 160 countries and sells switching gear used by phone and internet companies, handsets and other products.
The company reported 2017 global revenue of CNY 108.8 billion ($17.3 billion).
ZTE and Huawei have been shut out of the US market for switching gear since a congressional panel in 2012 labelled them security threats.
The company can keep using Android, for which Google charges no fee, but might lose access to applications such as Google Maps, Gmail and YouTube, according to according to IDC analyst Kiranjeet Kaur.
"If ZTE cannot have these Google applications, ZTE phones will be a lot less attractive," said Kaur.
Its smartphones also have "high dependence" on Qualcomm application processors, according to Kaur.
Qualcomm didn't immediately respond to an email seeking comment. Intel Corp., another chip supplier, declined to comment.